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Green transport is transport that is environmentally, economically and socially sustainable. “Greening” transport involves mitigating climate change and harmful health, social and economic impacts by reducing GHG and particulate emissions from transport, reducing noise pollution, reducing traffic congestion, and improving land use by reducing the physical footprint of transportation systems. Measures to accomplish this range from technology improvements to behaviour change and spatial planning interventions.

Natural Gas (CH4) is the most ecological fuel of all, and one of the most abundant in nature. It is not obtained through a refinement process, but is an ecological fuel ready to use right from the source. Natural Gas contains no impurities, sulphur, lead compounds or aromatic hydrocarbons, so it produces only very low levels of polluting emissions, with no odour, particulate matter or combustion residues. The chemical composition of Natural Gas produces much less CO2 than other fuels and reduces ozone formation in the atmosphere. The intrinsic properties of Natural Gas make it suitable for use in vehicles with no need for additives that may be harmful to human health. Also, it contains more energy than any other fuel (natural gas = 11,600 kcal/kg; petrol = 10,300 kcal/kg; diesel =10,200 kcal/kg). Another important benefit is that Natural Gas is much easier and more economical to transport than other fuels, because after the initial cost of building a gas pipeline, it is very inexpensive to transport. Unlike other fuels, Natural Gas does not need to be transported in tanker trucks, which produce polluting emissions and contribute to traffic congestion, and therefore it helps reduce accident risk and pollution by heavy vehicle traffic. The Natural Gas pipeline grid is underground, so it does not affect the landscape in the places it passes through.

Africa as a continent has vast reserves of natural gas. That abundance, combined with its low-emissions and reliability, make natural gas a building block of the clean energy future and an affordable and low-carbon energy choice for consumers at home and across the globe. Natural gas is used: • By homes for heating and cooking • By industry for manufacturing essential products as varied as steel, medical equipment and fertilizer • By grocery stores, hotels and restaurants for heat, power and de-humidification; • By trucks, buses and cars for clean fuel; and • By utilities and power producers to generate reliable electricity with low emissions. In addition to the numerous uses for natural gas, LNG in its liquid form can be use in the marine and mining sectors as fuel. LNG offers the promise of a clean energy future that is affordable and accessible to all communities across the globe. Access to LNG can help lift people out of poverty, grow local economies, clean up the environment and enable access to modern, reliable energy.

Dual-fuel engines are designed to operate interchangeably on natural gas with a diesel pilot, or on 100% diesel or petrol fuel. Therefore, economic analyses shows that such conversions could be justified from the fuel cost savings alone in applications such as railroad locomotives, mine trucks, and diesel engine powered generation systems. The dual fuel has been used to designate compression-ignition reciprocating engines that have the capability to co-combust diesel fuel with CNG. Dual fuel diesel engines can operate by on diesel also, offering the flexibility to continue operations even if gas fuel is unavailable. The term “bi-fuel” taken to mean any engine that can utilize either gas or diesel, separately, but not both in combined form. Natural gas fuel could be substituted for diesel fuel in varying proportion according to working conditions. Dual fuel engine substitution rate is controlled with a system of sensor and ECU fitted with the engine equipment. Many factors that affect actual diesel substitution rates of 50%-70% of gas on energy basis have been reported. A Dual Fuel diesel engine (traditionally) is a diesel engine that has been fitted with additional devices allowing it to utilize natural gas as a supplemental fuel. This engine type is a true diesel and requires some level of diesel for operation, for ignition of the gas fuel. A primary benefit that of fuel flexibility, operating with cleaner and cheaper natural gas. Natural gas can be used as a dual-fuel in diesel engines. It is not very toxic as compare to petrol and it is much safer to use, exhausting minimal amount of CO2, as compared to a normal petrol or diesel engine. As when governments worldwide seek methods of reducing their CO2 emissions from vehicles, DNG engine can provide a positive and welcome alternative. Purified CNG (methane) has a chemical composition of 4 hydrogen atoms, and only 1 carbon atom. Therefore, during combustion in an engine it emits less CO2 than gasoline or diesel oil. The CNG can be compressed and stored in the automobile or truck where it is a much safer and environment friendly option in comparison to diesel oil or gasoline fuels.

CNG (Compressed Natural Gas) is a practical alternative to petrol as a vehicle fuel. It is made by compressing natural gas, which consists primarily of methane, to less than 1% of its volume at standard atmospheric pressure. Natural gas occurs naturally as a fossil fuel, is a by-product of oil refineries, and can be generated by purifying biogas from landfills or a bio digester. In all these cases the active molecule is methane (CH4). Natural gas can be further compressed into Liquid Natural Gas (LNG), which is often used for transporting CNG due to its higher volumetric energy density, and is used as fuel in long haul applications for the same reason.

LPG stands for Liquid Petroleum Gas. It is a by-product of the refining of crude oil. LPG is a gas at atmospheric pressure and normal ambient temperatures, but it can be liquefied when higher pressure is applied and/or when the temperature is reduced. The LPG used in vehicles is a blend of propane and butane gases with chemical and physical properties that help vehicle performance in terms of power, versatility and engine functioning. The products of its combustion are carbon and nitrogen oxides and unburnt hydrocarbons, in smaller quantities than produced by petrol and diesel-fuelled vehicles, while aromatic hydrocarbons, sulphur dioxide and particulates are absent. The energy content of LPG is 10,000 kcal/kg, while that of petrol is 10,300 kcal/kg.

LNG is the acronym for Liquefied Natural Gas. It has been created over millions of years of the transformation of organic materials. Natural gas consist mainly of methane (CH and is considered the lowest carbon and least polluting fossil fuel. Natural gas is a cleaner and more effective energy source and is perfect to support a clean-to-green and low-carbon fuel transition strategy.

Engines running on CNG produce less hydrocarbon exhaust emissions than gasoline-fuelled engines. In fact, compared to cars fuelled by gasoline or diesel, natural gas vehicles produce 70% less carbon monoxide (CO), 87% less non-methane organic gas (NMOG), 87% less nitrogen oxide (NOx) and 20% less carbon dioxide (CO2). And although natural gas vehicles do emit methane, one of the principal greenhouse gases, the methane emission is offset by the significant reduction in CO2 emissions.

CNG is stored in spherical or cylindrical compressed natural gas tanks (CNG Tanks) that are much stronger than gasoline fuel tanks. In case of an accident, CNG will dissipate into the atmosphere unlike gasoline, which pools in the ground and becomes a dangerous fire hazard. CNG also has a narrower range of flammability, which means that natural gas will not burn in concentrations in air that is below 5% and above 15%. In addition, natural gas is not toxic or corrosive. And because any leaks dissipate into the atmosphere instead of the ground, CNG will not contaminate ground water.

Since natural gas is 90% methane, it has a substantially higher octane rating compared to gasoline. This allows for higher compression ratios that make the engines running on CNG significantly more efficient. Also, because CNG is a clean-burning fuel, it causes less wear and tear on the engine. This results to longer engine life and more savings from maintenance costs such as tune-ups and oil/ spark plug changes.

Natural gas costs significantly less than either gasoline or diesel. In fact, CNG is available at a third of the price of gasoline on average. Also, the prices of natural gas are less volatile compared to oil prices. This stability makes long term cost planning easier. Reduction in engine wear and tear due to the clean burning characteristic of natural gas also helps NGV owners save up on expensive tune-ups, parts replacements and oil changes.

We have an abundant supply of natural gas. There is also an extensive, well-established network of gas pipelines distributing natural gas to several areas in the country. Also, there are now more CNG fuelling stations across the world with more being built every day. This makes CNG use convenient as NGV owners have easy access to natural gas fuelling stations.

Compressed Natural Gas is one of the most viable alternative fuel options today. Natural gas has been used as fuel in domestic households for many years but it hasn’t achieved mainstream use as fuel for automobiles. As an alternative to buying a new NGV, car owners can also choosing to convert an existing vehicle to run on CNG. A CNG conversion kit is a set of components that are installed in a vehicle so it can operate using CNG. CNG conversion kits usually come with parts such as regulator, high pressure tubing and fittings, pressure gauge, filling nozzle, hoses, hose clamps, advance timing processor, fuel change over “ON/Off” switch as well as the necessary wiring, straps and screws. The fuel change over switch allows the driver to switch from gasoline to CNG in just a push of a button. CNG conversion kits usually do not include the CNG tank or cylinder as well as the cylinder valve. They are purchased separately from the CNG conversion kit. CNG United will provide you ALL parts and accessories needed to successfully complete your conversion. Using CNG conversion kits has several advantages and a few disadvantages also. For people who are contemplating on making the switch from purely gasoline-run vehicle to a CNG/gasoline bi-fuel system, knowing these advantages can help you make the right decision that is best for you. Advantages of CNG: • Natural gas is significantly less expensive than gasoline. In some areas, natural gas costs as low as a third of the cost of gasoline, on average. • CNG is more eco-friendly than gasoline. Natural gas produces far fewer harmful emissions and hydrocarbons than gasoline. • Using CNG makes the engine cleaner and more efficient. Unlike gasoline, CNG minimizes harmful carbon deposits when combusted. This results to a cleaner and more efficient engine as well as longer lasting spark plugs. Oil changes are also minimized because of carbon deposits that contaminate the oil is eliminated. • CNG is abundant in the world. We have extensive natural gas resources and a well-established network of pipelines. Switching to CNG can help ease the country’s dependence to foreign oil. • CNG has higher Octane levels averaging over 120 Octane . Disadvantages of CNG: • CNG tanks require storage space. You may need to sacrifice some of the space in the trunk (for cars), truck bed (for pickup trucks) or behind the back seat (for SUVs). The CNG cylinder can be heavy; the added weight of the tank is offset by the reduced weight of a gasoline fuel. • CNG Filling stations have limited availability. CNG conversion is most practical and convenient for people living in areas with easy access to CNG filling stations -or- consider installing a Home CNG Fueling Unit.

Mileage results vary among vehicles based on several factors but if you select a high quality CNG conversion system from Reachfield Enterprise and if the CNG conversion system is installed correctly, then your mileage results when running on CNG may remain completely unchanged compared to your mileage results when running on gasoline or diesel. In a few cases, a slight decrease in mileage may result but even in such cases, the many benefits of running on much lower cost CNG justify having Reachfield Enterprise install a high quality CNG conversion system in your vehicle.

If your vehicle is in good running condition before one of our high quality CNG conversion systems is installed and if our CNG conversion system is installed properly, preferably by a certified Reachfield Enterprise installation technician, then you should experience the same level of performance on CNG as you do now on gasoline. In some cases when operating a CNG powered vehicle up a long inclining roadway, you may on occasion find yourself pressing more heavily on the gas pedal to maintain the same highway speed. The technical reason for this is because CNG has slightly less kinetic energy than Petroleum Fuel (Gasoline). Except for such limited occasions, you will find your vehicle performs just as well running on CNG as it does running on gas or diesel, except that you will be paying a lot less at the pump to purchase a gallon of CNG!

What are ways to ensure efficient fuel mileage when running on CNG after the CNG conversion system is installed? There are many things that can be done to For example; • Service the vehicle a regularly scheduled intervals. • Make sure to use a quality CNG conversion system from CNG United so that you can be certain that your CNG conversion system will be properly matched to your engine according to its liter size and horse power. • Properly tune and calibrate the vehicle after your CNG conversion.

What is involved in the installation of a CNG conversion system in my vehicle? The installation of a CNG conversion system in your vehicle consists of placing and securing brackets that support the CNG gas tanks, placing and securing the CNG tanks in the brackets, configuring and running high pressure CNG hose lines along the vehicle chassis from the CNG tank to the engine compartment, installing various system components under the hood, installing the wiring harness, completing the post-installation checklist and performing vehicle laptop calibration / tuning and testing to ensure optimal post-installation vehicle performance.

We highly recommend using a Certified Reachfield Enterprise Installation Technician. A certified installation technician is well trained and very familiar with the handing and installation of our CNG conversion systems, including computerized information systems, hard lines, detailed wiring harnesses, high pressure CNG tanks, and related components. We recommend that our CNG equipment be installed by a highly trained technician who knows how best to configure our CNG conversion system and related components in your particular vehicle for maximum safety, space savings and performance results.

Will the installation of a CNG conversion system affect the manufacturer’s warranty on my vehicle? Since each manufacture is different, we encourage you to inquire with your particular vehicle manufacture to be sure.

The CNG tank is shaped similar to a scuba tank used by a diver to breath oxygen under water. The size of the CNG tank can vary depending on individual customer preferences and vehicle usage patterns / needs. Some CNG tanks may be longer and thinner or shorter with a larger diameter. The placement of a CNG tank in a vehicle is a decision that is typically discussed beforehand by the vehicle owner and the installation technician. After taking into consideration the purpose and utility of the vehicle, in most cases, CNG tanks are placed in the most logical location in vehicles. For example, in a passenger vehicle, the CNG tank is typically placed in the back of the trunk space nearest to the back of the rear passenger seat. In the case of an SUV, the CNG tank is typically installed behind the last row of seating and immediately inside the back entry door/s. In the case of a typical light truck. The CNG tank may be installed in a sideways position directly behind and underneath the rear window in the truck bed. Different CNG tank sizes can also be used to accommodate custom locations for placement of the CNG tanks such as underneath the truck bed where the spare tire is stored, or a long slender CNG tank may be selected for installation along the driveshaft to minimize or eliminate any need to use other available space.

Nothing. Its stays right where it is so that you will have the luxury of owning a “Bi-Fuel” vehicle which means that you will keep your original gas tank so that you can run on gas while also being able to choose to run on much lower low cost CNG whenever you like. A simple press of a button that is installed on your dashboard allows you the convenience to switch to or from CNG or gas / diesel on a moment’s notice.

Yes! You have an option to install a personal use home refuelling system that is connected to your home gas line and power source. Home-based fuelling systems typically refill CNG tanks at a rate of 1 – 1.2 gas gallon equivalent per hour. Although such home-based systems refill CNG tanks more slowly than more powerful commercial CNG refuelling systems, if you don’t need to be able to refill your CNG tanks in the same approximate amount of time that it takes to fill your standard gas tank with gasoline or diesel, then this approach may be for you and can enable you to technically remain “off the grid” which means that you may never need to refuel your vehicle with gas or diesel purchased from a gas station ever again. Since the rate of refuelling CNG tanks using home-based refuelling systems is not fast enough for some customers, such as small fleet operators that run businesses, there is no need to worry. CNG tanks can be refilled with CNG more quickly by using a slightly larger CNG refuelling system.

How long does it take to install a CNG conversion system in a vehicle? The length of time it takes to install a CNG conversion system in a vehicle depends on the level of experience of the installing technician. Typically, we recommend that you allow two days for our CNG conversion system to be properly and professionally installed in your vehicle. If you have access to a certified installation technician with an experienced helper, the installation of a CNG conversion system can be completed in 1 to 1.5 days.

Can I stop using Diesel Fuel completely and just run my vehicle exclusively on Natural Gas? Not altogether, because in a diesel engine to CNG conversion, you must run the diesel engine on a blend of both Diesel fuel and CNG at the same time. The use of a blend of diesel and CNG is required because diesel fuel contains elements, including a lubricant that your Diesel engine requires to run properly but you can still benefit from the use of CNG along with diesel since CNG is so much lower in cost compared to diesel fuel.

Many factors need to be considered to accurately answer this question such as the utility of the vehicle, the driving conditions, whether the vehicle is operated under heavy loads/weights, whether the vehicle is used to go down into a deep mine and return with tons of load, etc. Generally speaking, if a 50/50 ratio of diesel to CNG use is great! Ratios of diesel to CNG of as much as 60% – 40% diesel to CNG and even 70% – 30% diesel to CNG have been recorded. Note: The elimination of any more Diesel fuel from the equation above these ratios in favour of using even more CNG than diesel may result in a loss of vehicle performance. Since diesel fuel contains more Kinetic energy than CNG, the ratio of diesel to CNG that is used to run vehicle matters, particularly when running a vehicle under a heavy load.

CNG tank sizes vary depending on the space available to install the CNG tank as well as the gas gallon equivalent that you choose to have installed which may depend on your driving habits and needed range. In every case, the shape of the CNG tank remains basically similar to a Scuba Diver’s breathing tanks. The CNG tanks can and do vary in terms of diameter and length of the CNG tanks so there are many choices to suit your particular needs.

CNG is safer than gasoline on a number of categories / scenarios. Just to name a few: there is no pooling of natural gas under an upside down vehicle unlike gas or diesel, CNG is lighter than air (approximately half the weight of air) so CNG floats up and away when it is released from the CNG tank into the atmosphere. Natural gas requires a perfect mix of oxygen and N.G. and temperature to ignite (1080+ degrees Fahrenheit) whereas the ignition temperature for gasoline is a relatively low temperature range of just 475-536 degrees Fahrenheit.

Yes! Natural gas enters the combustion chamber of your engine in a 120+ Octane gaseous form and generates a much more complete combustion compared to gas or diesel fuel. The more complete combustion of CNG reduces the microscopic charcoal residue that is left behind from partially ignited petroleum fuel (i.e. gas). For this reason, by running on CNG, your spark plugs will perform better and last longer without becoming fouled by a build-up of carbon that results from partially burned gasoline. Even the oil in your vehicle will stay cleaner longer by running on CNG.

Biomethanation (also called as anaerobic digestion) is an attractive waste management practice in which both energy and environmental problems could be solved. It is a biological process that converts organic matter into energy-rich biogas in the absence of oxygen by the help of anaerobic bacteria. At the end of the process biogas is generated that contains typically 40–60 % methane and the rest composition consists of mostly carbon dioxide with traces of other gases. This biogas can be utilized as combined heat and power or as fuel, it has been estimated that in a controlled environment of biomethanation 1 tonne of municipal solid waste will produce 2–3 times methane in 3 weeks compared to landfills that will produce the same amount of gas in 6–7 years.